Jun 2018 / by Ashoke Kumar Basu
The conventional unidirectional radial distribution system uses non-directional overcurrent relays, reclosers, fuses etc, as the protection devices. When a microgrid is formed in this distribution system, then all these devices become inadequate to fulfill the basic requirements for the complete protection. The microgrid causes the magnitude and direction of the fault current to change dynamically depending on the modes of operation (grid connected or autonomous mode) as well as type, number and position of distributed generators in the network. The microgrid in the existing distribution network turns the radial network more complicated. The researchers are studying various options of the microgrid protection. It is a major challenge of researchers to address protection issues which are hindrances to detect and clear the fault within the microgrid quickly ensuring minimum or no supply of energy disruption to its consumers. The present paper reports the comprehensive survey on existing research literatures in connection with various issues of microgrid protection and, hopefully, it would be useful to the researchers in the field of microgrid protection in finding relevant references and designing state-of-the-art methods.
Keywords: Adaptive protection, grid-connected mode, islanded mode, microgrid, over current protection
Jun 2018 / by Weijun Wang, Weisong Peng, Yong Sun and Wei Luo
Electric heating with heat storage technology can effectively reduce the abandoned wind of wind farms located in north China during the winter, improving the consumptive capacity of wind power. Considering the poor economy and singleness of electric heating with heat storage technology, life cycle assessment method is applied to analyze each stage of electric heating boiler with heat storage technology, including production, transportation, construction, operation and dismantling scrap. Meanwhile, the pollution emissions of each stage are calculated and compared to the cogeneration of heat and power in order to analyze its superiority and expandibility. The research result shows that the electric heating with heat storage technology consuming abandoned wind will reach a obviously lower pollutant discharge level than cogeneration heating mode. Therefore, from the point of environmental protection, electric heating with heat storage technology has extensive popularization significance in north China where abandoned wind phenomenon is serious.
Keywords: Wind power; electric heating with heat storage; pollution discharge; life cycle assessment
May 2018 / by Subhendu Podder and Amar Nath Bhadra
India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and is moving ahead with development process. Sustaining a fastpaced growth rate and driving a comprehensive development requires addition of major infrastructure like power, road, communication, and transportation. To ensure inclusive growth infrastructure should also grow side by side but to ensure sustainability those growth shall be in the green way. Sustainable agricultural development has to be given topmost priority of Developing Nation as the climate change has affected the ecological security through dropping of crop production. The rapid growth of the population together with increased vehicle exhaust, GHGs emitted from coal-based combustions and irresponsible use of pesticides is causing a significant damage in the quality of atmosphere. The rapid industrialisation and anthropogenic activities have vitiated the atmosphere such that the ailments like COPD, cancer, and other vector-borne diseases like eengue are omnipresent. The “Right to inhale fresh air” and the “Right for safe living on the Earth” shall be new demand of humanity. As a responsible leadership, while being dedicated to “Make in India” movement for an inclusive growth Government of India voluntarily targeted to cut emissions intensity, by 2030, of its GDP by 33-35% from the 2005 level and to achieve around 40% cumulative electric power installed capacity from nonfossil- fuel-based energy resources. The increased demand for energy shall be sourced through renewables and advanced technology applications such as solar, wind, hydro and AUSCT, along with proper pollution control measures, to provide energy security and to ensure safe-living on earth not only for today but for our future generations. The paper intends to discuss and highlight the technological solutions available and mandatory use of those will not only ensure green growth but also open up new vistas of business opportunity to self-propel the success of Make-in-India movement.
Keywords: Make in India, safe-living, green growth
May 2018 / by M. Seenirajan, M. Natarajan, R. Thangaraj and E. Kavitha
In this fast technically developing world it has been difficult to avoid disasters which are occurring periodically despite the scientific reasoning and technical supports. Recent events have fostered the selfish and irresponsible human activities for seasonal floods in India Ambasamuthiram Taluk, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu. Flood is a natural disaster almost occurs in every part of the world. India has longest rivers passing from high population density area. During monsoon season, cyclone floods are usually happen in India. Many conditions can result in a flood: hurricanes, overtopped levees, outdated or clogged drainage systems and rapid accumulation of rainfall. The recent flood in Ambasamuthiram was unexpected and not triggered by the above factors.
Sometimes floods occur when the watershed size is considerably small which leads to the over flow of water inland. Temporarily used backwater effects in sewers and blocks in local drainage channels and creation of unsanitary conditions may cause flooding. Ambasamuthiram flood was basically claimed to occur due to improper drainage system and underlying strata which was found to be landfill over the ponds and lakes.
People floods are the most common natural disasters; their frequency, magnitude and the cost of damage are on the rise all over the world. “Flooding is a general temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry areas from overflow of inland or tidal waters or from unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff” (Jeb and Aggarwal, 2008). According to European Commission (2007), a flood can be defined as “a natural phenomenon that results in the temporary submerging with water of a land that does not occur under normal conditions”. They are the naturally occurring event and hence cannot be prevented and they can have serious consequences such as displacement of and damage to the environment (IFRC, 2001; Adeoye et al., 2009; Nmeribeh, 2011). Floods can also be caused by anthropogenic activities and human interventions in the natural processes such as increase in settlement areas, population growth and economic assets over low lying plains prone to flooding leading to alterations in the natural drainage and river basin patterns, deforestation and climate change (EC, 2007; Balabanova, 2008; Kwak, 2008; Kondoh, 2008; and Vassilev, 2010). Floods cause about one third of all deaths, one third of all injuries and one third of all damage from natural disasters (Askew, 1999). During a World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction organized by the United Nations in Yokohama in May 1994, one of the 10 “principles” of the Yokohama Strategy is that “risk assessment is a required step for the adoption of adequate and successful disaster reduction policies and measures”. The terms “floods”, “flood hazard”, and “flood risk” cover a broad range of phenomena. The terms such as “flood risk” and “flood losses” are essentially our interpretation of the negative economic losses and social consequences of natural events. Flood risk may increase due to human activity and may decrease by appropriate flood management and planning (Simonovic, 2009).
A morphometric analysis was carried out to describe the topography and drainage characteristics of Papanasam and Manimuthar watersheds. These watersheds are part of Western Ghats, which is an ecologically sensitive region. The drainage areas of Papanasam and Manimuthar watersheds are 163 and 211 km2 respectively and they show patterns of dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage. The slope of both watersheds varied from 0° to 59° and 0° to 55° respectively. Moreover, the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. Each watershed was classified as a fifth-order drainage basin. The stream order of the basin was predominantly controlled by physiographically and structurally matures geomorphic INDIAN JOURNAL OF POWR & RIVER VALLEY DVELOPMENT 81 stage. The development of stream segments is affected by rainfall and local lithology of the watershed conditions.
Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process (AHP), Geographical Information System (GIS), multi-criteria decision making (MCDA)