• Prospects of offshore wind power generation in India

    Apr 2020 / by V. SARAVANAN, M. ARAVINDAN, V. BALAJI and M. ARUMUGAM

    To mitigate the global climate change and to enhance India’s renewable power generation capacity and to deploy low carbon energy production with improved energy efficiency, offshore wind generation is being suggested in this paper. Policy and regulatory framework aspects for achieving 5 GW offshore wind installations in the states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu by the year 2032 with current practices and sophisticated technologies adopted throughout the world is presented. For effective implementation, suitable measures and actions to be taken by various stake holders are also mentioned.
    Keywords: Offshore wind power, policy and regulatory framework, wind power generators, AC-DC power converters, HVDC transmission, offshore substation, power quality/stability studies, wind farms

    Improvements, new innovations and status of solar thermal power plants in India

    Apr 2020 / by SRINIVAS GUGULOTHU and M. RAVI KUMAR

    A high solar radiation available in India is a factor to encourage the full development of solar power plants for thermal and electrical energy productions. Most parts of India, Asia experience a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in solar thermal technology, heat from the sun’s rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. Solar thermal technology is more pollution free energy than solar photovoltaic energy.

    In this paper, a brief description and working principles of the solar thermal technology are studied. Besides, the paper points out the solar energy potential, the current state of electricity generation and the future of solar thermal power projects in the country. Special attention is drawn to the Indian government initiatives and support for the use of solar energy. In the end, the future prospects of solar projects development with the worldwide competitive technologies by considering the existing obstacles that should be removed by the Indian governments and energy planners in the future of energy production are presented.

    Keywords: Solar thermal power plant, solar thermal energy storage, concentrating solar power, heat transfer fluid (HTF), thermal energy storage (TES), phase change material (PCM).

    Preparing for the future of grid-code

    Apr 2020 / by DIANE CLIFFORD and ANNIKA BÖHM

    As growth in distributed energy and other factors increase the risk of instability on electric utility systems, nations and grid providers are tightening grid-code requirements. Developers of distributed energy projects need to stay current with grid-codes and can look to a trusted equipment manufacturer for help with compliance.

    Turbidity currents

    Apr 2020 / by RAJASHREE LODH and AMARTYA KUMAR BHATTACHARYA

    Integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity smart grid: Study

    Apr 2020 / by G. SRINIVASAN

    Smart grid technology is the key for an efficient use of distributed energy resources. The smart grid is the future conversion for the techniques and strategies of production and the interaction of all the components of power grid. Noting the climate change becomes an important topic of concern, the whole world is currently facing the ever increasing price of petroleum products, coal etc and also the reduction in cost of renewable energy power systems, giving opportunities for renewable energy systems to address electricity generation. However, to achieve this task, an efficient energy management system needs to be addressed. In this context, the concept of smart grid plays a crucial role and can be successfully applied to the power systems. This paper presents the study of integrating renewable energy in smart grid system. The introductory part provides the role of renewable energy and distributed generation in smart grid system. The concept of smart grid renewable energy system and its applications along with the PV smart grid system are also been discussed and studied. It concludes that smart grids offer solutions to various challenges associated with variable RE, including providing additional flexibility, unlocking demand side participation, and deferring more costly grid upgrades. This paper also discusses about the following:
    • What are the challenges of integrating variable RE into power grids?
    • What types of smart grid solutions are emerging to integrate variable RE?
    • What are the good examples from around the world of smart grids aiding in the integration of variable RE?
    • What types of policy and regulatory approaches are emerging to support smart grid solutions in relation to RE?

    Integration of solar generation for reduction of auxiliary power consumption (APC) in thermal power plant

    Apr 2020 / by M. G. MORSHAD

    Auxiliary power consumption (APC) is a major concern for power plant since % APC is one of the components for tariff determination. The selling cost of one unit of electrical energy (tariff) increases with the increase of % APC. Since Indian power sector is moving towards tariff treading mechanism for selling out the generated power, it is going to be compulsory for each generating station to keep the tariff as low as possible in order to evacuate the generated power to the grid. Under this circumstance, reduction of % APC is one of the options for maintaining the tariff as low as possible. On the other hand, thermal power plant has to comply with some statuary environmental regulation for handling dry ash, emission of SOx, NOx, SPM and handling effluent. To comply with these environmental norms, considerable amount of electrical energy is consumed for operating these systems and it leads to further increase in % APC. In view of the above, utilization of solar energy for APC is one of the options which can be implemented for reducing auxiliary power consumption in thermal power plant. The objective of this paper is to study the technical and financial feasibility for setting up of solar panel in thermal power plant for the purpose of reduction in % APC.

    The reliability evaluation of an overhead transmission line based on the fault tree model

    Apr 2020 / by SHIYANG-ZHU and LE WANG

    The overhead transmission line is the main part of a power system, whose state affects the reliability and stabilization of the power system. Therefore, the state of an overhead transmission line must be evaluated to protect the power system. This study analyzed the relationship between the common failure modes of transmission lines and their influencing factors, chose the influencing factors as the characteristic parameters, and built the fault tree model of an overhead transmission line. It used the improved analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the importance of the fault mode, and then calculated the corresponding weights of different fault tree models. The
    study also used the relative deterioration degree and membership function to calculate the probability of all kinds of faults. The correctness and validity of this model was verified by the operation data of the Guangxi grid.

    Keywords: Fault tree, overhead transmission line, reliability, improved analytic hierarchy process, membership
    function.

    Types of solar thermal power plants

    Apr 2020 / by R. SIVA SAI and B. GOVERDHAN REDDY

    A solar thermal electricity generating system also known as solar thermal power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiation at medium/high temperature (300ºC – 800ºC). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycle to produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in solar thermal technology, heat from the sun’s rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:

    * Parabolic trough solar electric generating system (SEGS).
    * Central receiver power plant.
    * Solar chimney power plant.
    * Dish sterling system.
    * Solar pond power plant.

    Most parts of India, Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum. Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earth’s surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at Earth’s surface. The higher the concentration is, the higher the temperatures we can achieve when converting solar radiation into thermal energy.

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